Joseph S. Nye Jr., one of the world’s leading scholars of international relations, joined the Socrates program for a conversation about his newly released publication Do Morals Matter? Presidents and Foreign Policy from FDR to Trump. In Do Morals Matter, Nye asks when U.S. presidents make tough decisions about foreign policy, how big a role does their moral compass play? With the world facing high-stakes threats such as nuclear war, climate change, a global pandemic, and technological disruption, our 46th president will need to shape foreign policies to meet these new challenges. Through an examination of past and present presidents, how can we improve applying moral reasoning to foreign policies for our future president? As the 2020 election quickly approaches and America faces a critical question of what it sees in a leader, these lessons are more important than ever.