In June 2021, the Aspen Health Strategy Group met virtually to explore the health harms of incarceration. We are pleased to present the final report from our work, based upon the group’s rich discussion. In the tradition of the thought-provoking conversations and dialogue on how to address critical societal issues — the hallmark of the Aspen Institute — the report includes five big ideas to tackle systemic issues at the intersection of incarceration and health. This compilation opens with a consensus report based on the group’s in-depth learning process, followed by a set of background papers. These papers explore the disconnect between correctional health and community-based structures of care, the intertwined relationship between incarceration and behavioral health, the influence of structural racism, and the community health impacts of incarceration.